7.44 million cases of gout have been estimated around the world in 2017 (incidence, 0.097%), with a prevalence of 41.22 million cases (0.54%), and causing 1.28 million DALYs (0.051% of all DALYs). Gout incidence, prevalence, and health loss considerably increased during the last 25 years and are all higher in men than in women.
Gout is a common and complex form of arthritis that can affect anyone. It's characterized by sudden, severe attacks of pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness in one or more joints, most often in the big toe.
Symptoms of gout include joint pain, swelling, and redness. The pain, swelling, and inflammation of the joints of a person with gout may come on suddenly and be quite severe. Medications, a gout-friendly diet, and lifestyle adjustments may all help keep gout under control.
Symptoms of gout tend to appear quickly, and often in the evening or at night. They include-
Joint pains. There is a lot of discomfort in the joints. Although the big toe is the most common site for gout attacks, the condition may affect any joint. Ankles, knees, elbows, wrists, and fingers are also often impacted. Typically, the first four to twelve hours following the onset of pain are the most intense.
An ongoing source of pain. Even after the acute pain has passed, you may still feel some soreness in your joints for many days to several weeks. More joints may be affected and the attack may remain longer if it occurs later.
Redness and inflammation. Affected joints may swell, hurt, be heated, and become red.
Constricted mobility. Joint immobility is a common symptom of gout's latter stages.
Extremely high levels of uric acid in the blood may cause painful bouts characteristic of gout. Uric acid is an excrement byproduct of the digestion of some foods. Extremely high amounts of uric acid might cause the formation of crystals in the joints. Because of this, there will be swelling, inflammation, and severe discomfort.
Gout patients may develop more serious problems, such as:
Recurrent Gout. Some patients may never again suffer gout symptoms. Others may have gout many times a year. In those with recurrent gout, medications may help avoid gout episodes. Gout, if left untreated, may cause joint erosion and damage.
Advanced Gout Untreated gout may cause urate crystal deposits beneath the skin to accumulate in nodules called tophi (TOE-fie). Tophi may appear in a variety of places, including your fingers, hands, feet, elbows, and the Achilles tendons down the backs of your ankles. Tophi are normally not painful, although they may swell and become sore during gout attacks.
Stones in the kidney. Urate crystals may form in the urinary tracts of gout patients, creating kidney stones. Medications may help minimise the chances of developing kidney stones.
How food influences Gouts?
Depending on their purine concentration, foods may either increase or reduce uric acid levels. Despite the fact that it lacks purine, fructose may boost uric acid levels.
Purines, a chemical present naturally in foods, are often found in high concentrations in food that cause reactions. Uric acid is a waste product created when the body breaks down purines.
A healthy person's body will eliminate any extra uric acid without any problems. However, many who suffer from gout are unable to effectively flush out their systems of excess uric acid. Therefore, uric acid may build up on a high-purine diet, leading to a gout attack.
Gout attacks may be avoided by limiting high-purine meals and using the correct medicine, as has been shown by scientific studies. Organ meats, red meats, shellfish, alcohol, and beer are typical dietary culprits in gout attacks. They have a high concentration of purines. But there is one case when this isn't the situation. Gout attacks are not brought on by eating high-purine vegetables, according to studies.
Even if they don't contain any purines, fructose and sugar-sweetened drinks may nevertheless raise your risk of gout and gout attacks.
The food you should eat.
A gout-friendly diet restricts your food choices, but there are still lots of tasty options that are low in purines.
Fruits. There is no specific fruit that should be avoided while dealing with gout. The anti-inflammatory and uric acid-reducing properties of cherries may also help avoid attacks.
Vegetables. Potatoes, peas, mushrooms, eggplant, and green leafy vegetables are also acceptable options.
Legumes. Lentils, beans, soybeans, and tofu are all good examples of legumes.
Nuts, any kind of nut or seed.
Whole Grains. Examples of whole grains include oats, brown rice, and barley.
Dairy: All dairy is OK, but low-fat dairy has extra benefits
Beverages. The beverages available include coffee, black tea, and green tea.
Herbs and spices..
oil extracted from plants such as canola, coconut, olive, and flax.
The food you should avoid.
Avoid high-purine meals if you have a history of abrupt gout episodes. More than 200 milligrams of purines per 3.5 ounces (100 grams) is the threshold for this category of meals.
Rich-fructose diets and foods moderately high in purines (150-200 mg per 3.5 ounces) should also be avoided.
Here are some examples of foods that are very high in purines, foods that are moderately high in purines, and foods that are rich in fructose that you should try to avoid.
Organ Meat. All types of organ meats: Organs such as the liver, kidneys, sweetbreads, and brain fall under this category.
Fish: herring, trout, mackerel, tuna, sardines, anchovies, haddock, and more Additionally, we have scallops, crab, shrimp, and roe.
Sugary \beverages: Most notably, sugary drinks like fruit juices and sodas.
Added \sugars: Sweeteners like honey, agave nectar, and high-fructose corn syrup
Yeasts: Yeast products such as nutritional yeast, brewer's yeast, and various yeast supplements
Further, white bread, cakes, and cookies should be avoided since they are high in refined carbohydrates. Low in nutrients and possibly increasing uric acid levels, yet free of purines and sugar.
Limit your consumption of non-organ meats and fish like salmon to servings of 4–6 ounces (115–170 grams) a few times weekly.